The stdio implementation
glibc supports some alternate incorrect format specifiers, like
%Ld as an alias
%lld. musl does not support these, and returns an error upon encountering
musl does not support glibc’s custom format specifier registration system.
musl’s floating point conversions honor rounding mode. glibc’s do not.
setvbuf functions ignore the caller-provided buffer and only
switch between fully-buffered, line-buffered, and non-buffered modes.
Behavior on end of file
ISO C and POSIX require the end-of-file status for a FILE to be sticky, i.e. for it to preclude further reads once it’s set, unless it’s explicitly cleared. musl honors this requirement. glibc ignores it and always returns new input, if available, even after the EOF flag is set.
Read and write patterns
writev for implementing stdio:
- When a read cannot be satisfied from the buffer, a single
readvcall transfers the remaining request to the caller’s buffer and fills the stdio buffer.
- When a write cannot fit in the remaining space in the buffer, a single write call transfers the write buffer and the data to be written from the caller’s buffer to the underlying file descriptor.
Normally this just yields good performance independent of heuristics on when to
buffer and when to transfer. However, it does also impact how Linux interprets
some writes to files in
Signal mask and setjmp/longjmp
By default, glibc provides the legacy BSD behavior for
and restoring the signal mask as part of the
jmp_buf. musl never includes signal
masks unless you use
siglongjmp and specifically request that the
signal mask be saved/restored. Per POSIX, correct applications cannot rely on
setjmp to save the signal mask, so musl’s behavior gives much better performance
for applications which do not care and which are using the interfaces correctly.
musl’s regex implementation is based on TRE, with significant modifications. Some popular extensions are supported, but not all; in particular, up until version 1.1.13 it lacked some of the common extensions to POSIX BRE that add ERE-like capabilities to BRE.
The GNU regex implementation also has an alternate API which can be used instead of the POSIX API. This alternate API is not supported by musl at all.
Finally, glibc’s regex uses a 32-bit
regoff_t even on 64-bit archs. This is
non-conforming to POSIX and precludes giving correct output for strings larger
than 2GB. musl uses a correct type, but this renders the ABI of the regex
functions incompatible on 64-bit archs. The ABI is compatible on 32-bit.
Re-entrancy of exit
Calling exit more than once invokes undefined behavior. musl does not support recursive calls to exit (via atexit functions/destructors) or simultaneous calls to exit (from multiple threads). The error is not diagnosed and may give unexpected results, or may happen to do what the programmer intended. musl used to deadlock when exit was called recursively and gracefully handled exit from multiple threads, but the code that caused this behavior was removed in 1.1.2. glibc does not deadlock under recursive exit, but it’s unclear whether such usage just “happens to work” or whether it’s supported.
glibc’s dynamic linker supports lazy binding: deferring resolution of symbol references to the first time the function is called. In theory this reduces startup latency if a large number of references are never used; in reality, it sometimes increases it by delocalizing the accesses. In any case, musl does not support lazy binding. This is both for robustness reasons (reporting failure of lazy binding is impossible) and because it greatly reduces the amount of fragile, arch-dependent code needed in the dynamic linker. Such code has been a perpetual source of bugs in the glibc implementation.
Until version 1.1.17, this difference was visible to applications which call dlopen on multiple libraries without proper dependency information, such that, once all libraries are loaded, they all satisfy each other’s dependencies, but individually, the first library has unresolved symbols. This is erroneous usage and could also break on archs where full lazy binding is not possible or practical. Newer versions of musl implement “deferred binding” in place of lazy binding, whereby binding is deferred until a subsequent dlopen call that introduces new symbols, rather than at the point of the function call.
musl’s dynamic loader loads libraries permanently for the lifetime of the
process, until it exits or calls exec.
dlclose is a no-op. This is very
different from glibc’s approach of reference counting libraries and unloading
them when the count reaches zero. The differences in observable behavior to
- Destructors will run on
dlclose(as long as there are no remaining references) under glibc, and subsequent opens of the same library will run their constructors again. Under musl, constructors only run the first time a library is run, and destructors only run on exit.
- Under glibc, the contents of all static storage in a library will be reset to its original state if the library is unloaded and reloaded. Under musl, it will never be reset.
- Address space from a library remains tied up even after
dlcloseon musl, so opening and closing an infinite family of libraries will eventually consume the entire address space and other resources. However, as long as there’s only a finite set of libraries being opened and closed, address space usage will be bounded. Under glibc, address space from closed libraries is free to be used again.
Either behavior conforms to POSIX, but only the musl behavior can satisfy the robustness conditions musl aims to provide. In particular:
- Under glibc’s approach, libraries not designed with
dlclosein mind (which may not be the libraries directly loaded with
dlopen, but rather their dependencies) may leave around references to themselves in such a way that removing them from the address space results in a crash (or worse) later on. This cannot happen under musl.
- Managing storage for thread-local objects is much more difficult if dlclose
unloads libraries. If space is to be reserved in advance (needed to guarantee
no late/unrecoverable failures), supporting unloading in
dlcloseseems to necessitate leaking TLS memory, which largely defeats the purpose of doing the unloading in the first place.
POSIX 2008+TC1 allows
dlerror to be thread-safe (with a thread-local error
buffer) or non-thread-safe (with a global buffer). Prior versions required it to
use a global buffer.
glibc has provided a thread-local
dlerror result for a long time. Versions of
musl up through 1.1.8 honored an old POSIX requirement and had global
state. Starting with 1.1.9, musl’s
dlerror state is thread-local and now matches
the glibc behavior.
glibc allows the usage of versioned symbols through version tables in gnu-specific elf sections. the musl dynlinker only supports the subset of symbol versioning that allows to pick the default symbol version, instead of the oldest version, which comes first in the regular symbol tables.
Thread stack size
The default stack size for new threads on glibc is determined based on the
resource limit governing the main thread’s stack (
RLIMIT_STACK). It generally
ends up being 2-10 MB.
musl provides a default stack size of 80k. This does not include the guard page,
nor does it include the space used for TLS unless total TLS size is very small.
So the actual map size may appear closer to 90k, with around 80k usable by the
application. This size was determined empirically with the goals of not
gratuitously breaking applications but also not causing large amounts of memory
and virtual address space to be committed in programs with large numbers of
threads. Programs needing larger stacks, or which explicitly want a smaller
stack, should make this explicit with
pthread_attr_setstacksize. For largely
unrestrained use of the standard library, a minimum of 12k is recommended, but
stack sizes down to 2k are allowed.
musl provides strong guarantees of the POSIX-specified side effects being observed when a function which is a cancellation point is cancelled: either the side effects are as if the function returned failure with a status of EINTR, or the function returns success and does not act on cancellation. glibc has no such guarantees.
Cancellation cleanup handling in musl has no relationship to C++ exceptions and unwinding. Any destructors or exception handlers present when acting on cancellation will not be run. Per the standards, cancellation under such conditions yields undefined behavior, but glibc implements cancellation as an exception and thus both cancellation cleanup handlers and exception handlers/dtors get run.
Character sets and locale
The C/POSIX locale
glibc presently has a pseudo-ASCII, pseudo-8-bit C locale: it only defines characters 0 through 127, and the multibyte interfaces treat high bytes as EILSEQ, but on the other hand regex, fnmatch, glob, etc. accept high bytes.
Up through version 1.1.10, musl provided a purely UTF-8 C locale. Despite being
unusual, this had precedent (Plan 9) and is explicitly permitted by the ISO C
standard (it’s documented as an option in the MSE1 Rationale document). However,
many scripts expect to be able to process data which is not valid UTF-8 using
the standard utilities by setting
LC_CTYPE=C, and as of Spring 2013, the Austin
Group (responsible for maintaining POSIX) resolved to require in future versions
of the standard that the C locale be “8 bit clear”, i.e. treat each possible
byte as an abstract character, to facilitate processing data in unknown or mixed
encodings and other dubious uses. This rendered both glibc’s and musl’s
Starting with version 1.1.11, musl provides a special C locale where bytes
0x80-0xff are treated as abstract single-byte-character units with no actual
character identity (they’re mapped into
wchar_t values that occupy the Unicode
surrogates range). All other locales are still processed as multibyte UTF-8, and
the intent is that the plain C locale’s character set be thought of as “UTF-8,
but processed byte-by-byte and without validation”.
In the absence of the
LC_* environment variables, POSIX leaves the
default locale (used when
"" is passed to
Under glibc versions at least up through 2.26, this default is
"C". musl on
the other hand always uses
"C.UTF-8" as the default. There has been discussion
on the glibc side of possibly adopting the musl behavior here once the
locale is an established feature of glibc.
musl uses the Unicode and modern ISO 10646 definition of UTF-8, which is a one-to-one mapping between the Unicode Scalar Values 0-0xd7ff,0xe000-0x10ffff and valid 1-4 byte sequences. In particular, surrogates are rejected, “over-long sequences” are rejected, and pseudo-UTF-8 sequences of 5 or 6 bytes (which would correspond to non-Unicode-scalar-value numbers beyond 0x10ffff) are rejected. glibc on the other hand accepts 5 and 6 byte sequences.
Aside from being a matter of standards conformance, accepting sequences only up
to 4 bytes allows for the possibility of generating UTF-8 output in a buffer
wchar_t, then converting it in-place, which is necessary for some
interfaces that cannot rely on being able to allocate working space.
The iconv implementation musl is very small and oriented towards being unobtrusive to static link. Its character set/encoding coverage is very strong for its size, but not comprehensive like glibc’s. In particular:
- Many legacy double-byte and multi-byte East Asian encodings are supported only as the source charset, not the destination charset. At least JIS-based ones will be supported as the destination beginning with version 1.1.19.
- Transliterations (//TRANSLIT suffix) are not supported.
- Converting to legacy 8-bit charsets is significantly slower than converting from them.
- Stateful conversions are not supported, and plain UTF-16 and UTF-32 do not process or honor BOM, as of version 1.1.18. Future versions will support ISO-2022-JP (stateful) and possibly other encodings.
- Misleading, deprecated charset aliases like UNICODE as an alias for UCS-2 are not supported. The IANA preferred MIME charset names should be used instead.
- Contrary to POSIX, glibc iconv generates EILSEQ when a character is not representable in the destination charset. musl, in accordance with POSIX, performs an implementation-defined conversion and returns the number of such inexact conversions performed. At present, it replaces the character with an asterisk, but something akin to glibc’s //TRANSLIT mode may be substituted in the future. Code written assuming the glibc semantics (error when no exact conversion is possible) may need to be tuned to work well on musl and other conforming iconv implementations.
Floating-point and mathematical library
musl implements the library requirements for C99 Annex F. Unlike glibc, musl does not try to support non-conforming floating-point formats and arithmetics (eg. the powerpc abi with software long double using two doubles, the IBM long double format).
glibc supports exception unmasking using fesetenv with non-standard fenv setting. musl does not support exception unmasking and library functions assume exceptions are always masked (floating-point arithmetics never trap).
IEEE 754 specifies five exception signals and five exception status flags as well (inexact, invalid, divbyzero, underflow, overflow). The signals are all masked in the default environment so in case of an exceptional condition the system does not trap but delivers a default result and raises the appropriate status flag. (Note: exact underflow is a special case that signals the underflow exception but does not raise the underflow status flag). The C standard does not provide any way to unmask the exception signals (but the specification of feraiseexcept and fesetexceptflag takes unmasked exception signals into account). Thus a conformant implementation can behave as if floating-point computations never trap, the observable behaviour is conforming, unless the application circumvents the libc (eg. by using assembly) and unmasks the exception signals (or invokes other unspecified fenv operations, eg. changes the x87 FPU precision setting on i386) in which case the behaviour of library functions is undefined.
glibc supports non-zero
MATH_ERRNO, ie. exceptional
conditions of the mathematical library are reported in errno. musl only supports
At least one of
MATH_ERREXCEPT must be supported and Annex F
MATH_ERREXCEPT support. Old platforms and platforms without FPU may not
provide the necessary IEEE 754 exception semantics for
MATH_ERREXCEPT. On such
platforms an implementation can only fall back to the classic errno based error
reporting that was already present in C89. (Note: the errno based method
provides less information, only EDOM and ERANGE is reported and the semantics is
On software FPU platforms without hardware register for floating-point status flags the software emulation library (provided by the compiler, eg. libgcc) can emulate the status flags with thread storage duration. Currently the status flags are not emulated, so musl is non-conforming on such platforms (neither errno nor fp exceptions are supported).
Traditional resolvers, including glibc’s, make use of multiple nameserver lines in resolv.conf by trying each one in sequence and falling to the next after one times out. musl’s resolver queries them all in parallel and accepts whichever response arrives first. This can increase network load (this is mitigated by only supporting up to three nameservers, and can be mitigated further at the configuration level by only configuring one nameserver) but drastically improves performance and reliability of DNS lookups, especially if diverse nameservers are used. An ideal configuration is:
- Caching nameserver on localhost (near-zero latency for locally cached results, but typically smallest cache size, and slowest for queries not serviceable from cache)
- ISP nameserver (very low latency for cached results, typically moderate cache size, and moderate performance for queries not serviceable from cache)
- 22.214.171.124 (somewhat higher latency but tends to have the whole DNS tree cached)
musl’s resolver previously did not support the “domain” and “search” keywords in resolv.conf. This feature was added in version 1.1.13, but its behavior differs slightly from glibc’s: queries with fewer dots than the ndots configuration variable are processed with search first then tried literally (just like glibc), but those with at least as many dots as ndots are only tried in the global namespace (never falling back to search, which glibc would do if the name is not found in the global DNS namespace). This difference comes from a consistency requirement not to return different results subject to transient failures or to global DNS namespace changes outside of one’s control (addition of new TLDs).
glibc supports IDN (non-ASCII name lookups via DNS) but requires the use of custom non-standard flags to getaddrinfo and getnameinfo to convert such names to/from the internal representation used in the DNS system (Punycode). musl does not yet support IDN conversions at all (but programs that know about IDN/Punycode and do the conversions themselves can of course lookup such names), but when support is added, it will always be enabled rather than requiring explicit options from the application.
Miscellaneous functions with GNU quirks
- GNU getopt permutes argv to pull options to the front, ahead of non-option arguments. musl and the POSIX standard getopt stop processing options at the first non-option argument with no permutation.
- glibc provides two versions of basename. The one declared in stdlib.h has alternate semantics and signature that conflict with the standard. musl only provides the standard one.